16 Okt 2014

Apa Maksud RON dalam pengkelasan Petrol?

RON dan Petrol

Oleh yusdirman, Oktober 2014

RON adalah singkatan daripada Research Octane Number

Ianya kaedah penarafan bahan api.

Lebih tinggi nilai RON, lebih mahal harga PETROL.

Adakah minyak RON 97 lebih berkuasa berbanding RON 95?

RON merujuk kepada tahap bahan api menahan rintangan "ketukan" semasa proses pembakaran oleh palam pencucuh dalam enjin. Ianya merujuk kepada tahap ketahanan bahan api untuk tidak terbakar sebelum dinyalakan oleh palam pencucuh dalam enjin.

"ketukan" dalam konteks RON ini adalah apabila campuran bahan api dan udara dalam enjin terbakar lebih awal sebelum api dari palam pencucuh menbakarnya. Pembakaran awal ini mungkin disebabkan enjin terlalu panas. Haba dari silinder enjin itu sendiri mungkin telah menyalakan bahan api sebelum palam pencucuh menyala. Ini boleh menurunkan prestasi dan mungkin boleh memudaratkan enjin!

Jadi, RON bukannya bermaksud LEBIH KUASA! Ianya bermaksud bahan api itu dapat menahan tekanan daripada enjin yang lebih tinggi. Biasanya enjin berkuasa tinggi memerlukan RON yang tinggi.

AMARAN! jika enjin kereta anda hanya perlukan RON95 untuk beroperasi, JANGAN ISI DENGAN RON97 KERANA IANYA AKAN MEROSAKKAN DOMPET ANDA DENGAN TERUK!

Periksa manual kereta untuk tentukan RON yang sesuai dengan enjin.


Untuk Kefahaman kita Tentang RON Petrol :


  • Lebih tinggi RON, bahan api lebih susah terbakar (tahan dalam tekanan tinggi)
  • Lebih rendah RON, lebih mudah terbakar (tidak tahan tekanan)



Contohnya seperti minyak diesel, ianya mempunyai RON yang rendah. Sebab itulah enjin diesel tidak perlukan palam pencucuh dan bahan api diesel dinyalakan hanya dengan tekanan tinggi.




Manakala enjin petrol dinyalakan dengan palam pencucuh kerana mintak petrol lebih tinggi daya tahan "ketukan" atau tekanan dalam enjin dan hanya akan menyala apabila dicucuh oleh api dari palam pencucuh.



Apa akan jadi jika kita guna RON95 pada ENJIN RON97?

Berdasarkan pemahaman di atas, jika bahan api yang kurang tahan pada enjin yang tinggi tekanannya seperti enjin berkuasa tinggi, maka bahan api akan terbakar lebih awal sebelum dinyalakan oleh palam pencucuh.


Ini dapat kurangkan prestasi enjin dan mungkin rosakkan enjin.


Apa akan jadi jika kita guna RON97 pada ENJIN RON95?

Bahan api RON tinggi digunakan pada enjin RON rendah tidak memberikan apa-apa kesan negatif kerana bahan api akan terbakar ketika dicucuh oleh api palam pencucuh, sama seperti yang sepatutnya berlaku. Tapi RON97 LEBIH MAHAL, rugi pitis la boh!


MITOS DAN SALAH FAHAM TENTANG RON PETROL

1. "RON lebih tinggi POWER lebih"

2. "RON tinggi lebih bersih sebab pembakaran sempurna"

3. "RON97 maksudnya 97% pembakaran sempurna, RON95 maksudnya 95% pembakaran sempurna"

- Ada minyak yang RON110. Cemana tu? :-)

4. "RON95 di Malaysia tak ikut standard, Kualiti telah dikurangkan"
- RON bukan merujuk kepada kualiti minyak yang lebih baik pembakaran, merujuk kepada ketahanan minyak yang tinggi.

5. ...

6. ...




13 Okt 2014

Harga Minyak Petrol RON95 Antara Negara Pengeluar Dunia


ABCDEFGH
1
Negara
Pengeluar Minyak
Subsidi Minyak
# Pengeluar Dunia
Harga USD/L
Harga RM/L
Harga TempatanTarikh
2
VenezuelaYaSubsidi90.0150.0489
BsF. 0.097/L (95)
BsF. 0.070/L (91)
BsF. 0.048/L (diesel)
12/12/2010
3
Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah)
YaSubsidi20.160.5216SAR 0.45/L (91 RON)
SAR 0.60/L (95 RON)
13/09/2011
4
LibyaYa270.170.5542
LD 0.2/L (95), LD 0.15/L (diesel)
Oct 2010: LD135 fuel tax at border for foreign vehicles
07/11/2010
5
TurkmenistanYa420.190.6194TMN 0.54 /LI -13/09/2011
6
Qatar (Doha)Ya180.220.7172QAR 1.00/L (97 Octane)
QAR 0.85/L (90 Octane)
22/01/2011
7
KuwaitYaSubsidi110.2240.73024
KWD 0.060/L (91)
KWD 0.065/L (95)
KWD 0.090/L (98)
30/06/2010
8
BahrainYaSubsidi630.270.8802
BHD 0.100/L (95 RON)
BHD 0.080/L (91 RON)
BHD 0.120/L (Diesel)
25/12/2013
9
OmanYa250.311.01060.12 Rials/L01/08/2010
10
IraqYa70.381.2388
ID 450/L (95 Octane)
ID 000/L (98 Octane)
ID 400/L (Diesel)
03/04/2013
11
BruneiYaSubsidi480.391.2714BR$0.53/L05/06/2008
12
IranYa
Subsidi 100L sebulan / kereta
2010-2015 Subsidi dihapuskan
40.391.2714
10000 Rials/L petrol (7000 rationed)
5000 Rials/L diesel (2500 rationed)
25/04/2014
13
AlgeriaYa150.411.3366
30DA/L 95 octane (rare down south)
regular 23DA/L
diesel DA14/L or US$0.2
07/11/2010
14
EcuadorYa300.441.4344US$1.68/US gallon (super)15/11/2011
15
UAEYa80.4981.62348
AED 1.72/L (95 Octane)
AED 1.83/L (98 Octane)
AED 2.60/L (Diesel)
31/12/2011
16
BoliviaYaSubsidi660.541.7604B3.74/L (super)
B3.72/L (diesel)
30/12/2010
17
AngolaYa160.622.021213/07/2011
18
GuatemalaYa780.642.0864
Q19.99/US gallon(regular)
Q16.79/US gallon(diesel)
14/04/2009
19
Trinidad and TobagoYaSubsidi450.642.0864TT$2.70/L (92)
TT$5.75/L (95)
TT$1.50/L (diesel)
01/12/2011
20
MalaysiaYaSubsidi (RON95)290.72.282
MYR 2.85/L (RON97)
MYR 2.30/L (RON95)
MYR 2.20/L (Diesel)
02/10/2014
21
YemenYa370.732.3798150 Rials/L (diesel)09/09/2009
22
PakistanYa590.752.445
PKR 107.97/L (Unleaded Premium)
PKR 131.26/L (Unleaded-Hi Octane)
PKR 109.34/L (Diesel)
PKR 105.48/L (E10 Gasoline)
PKR 71.50 to 76.35/KG (CNG)
01/05/2014
23
Mexico (Mexico City)YaSubsidi100.772.5102MX$10.09/L(Magna 87)
MX$10.78/L(Premium 92)
14/04/2012
24
North KoreaYa1100.772.5102KP? 111/L26/12/2009
25
SyriaYa320.83332.716558SY 50 pound/L (unleaded)
SY 15 pound/L (Diesel)
03/01/2012
26
Nigeria (Lagos)YaSubsidi130.872.8362N141/L01/01/2012
27
EgyptYaSubsidi280.92.934
LE 1.60/L <80 octane
LE 2.60/L <92 octane
LE 6.25/L <95 octane
LE 1.8/L diesel ('solar')
05/07/2014
28
Russia (Kaliningrad)Ya10.912.9666RUR 25.3/L (diesel)15/07/2011
29
ArgentinaYa260.922.9992
ARS $11.98/L (95)
ARS $12.98/L (98)
ARS $10.59/L (diesel)
27/08/2014
30
MauritaniaYa760.943.0644
UM265/L petrol
UM225/L diesel
Prices 10-20% more up north
07/11/2010
31
Russia (Moscow)Ya10.943.0644
RUR 30.29/L (RON 98)
RUR 27.29/L (RON 95)
RUR 25.89/L (RON 92)
RUR 23.49/L (RON 80)
RUR 25.29/L (Winter diesel)
24/02/2011
32
Puerto RicoYa1020.963.1296$0.957/L (95)
$0.987/L (98)
$0.997/L (Diesel)
08/04/2011
33
KazakhstanYa170.983.1948KZT145/L (unleaded 95)
KZT106/L (unleaded 92)
02/11/2011
34
TunisiaYa550.993.2274
TND 1.27/L (€0.67) (95 RON)
TND 0.91/L (€0.48) (Diesel)
24/09/2009
35
AzerbaijanYa2113.26
AZN 0.70/L (AI-80, AI-92)
AZN 0.80/L (AI-95)
AZN 1.50/L (AI-98)
AZN 0.60/L (L-62 Diesel)
02/12/2013
36
United StatesYaSubsidi31.0243.33824$3.49/US gallon
$4.01/US gallon (diesel)
05/11/2012
37
Sierra LeoneYa1131.053.423Le4500/L27/05/2011
38
BurmaYaSubsidi741.063.4556
K3100/imperial gallon (regular)
K3300/imperial gallon (diesel)
21/11/2008
39
ChinaYa51.063.4556RMB 6.46/L08/02/2012
40
BelarusYa691.073.4882Br3240/L (95)
Br2580/L (Diesel)
12/05/2010
41
UzbekistanYa551.073.4882UZ SUM 1755/L (95)01/01/2011
42
ColombiaYa201.093.5534
COL$8000/US gallon (81 Octanos)
COL$9595/US gallon (87 Octanos)
30/11/2010
43
ArubaYa1011.13.586Fl. 1.93/L12/12/2009
44
VietnamYaSubsidi (RON92)361.113.6186
VND 25,070/L (RON 95)
VND 24,570/L (RON 92)
VND 22,310/L (Diesel)
18/07/2013
45
PanamaYa1151.153.749
US$3.35/US gallon (95)
US$2.99/US gallon (diesel)
10/07/2014
46
CanadaYa61.183.8468C$1.16/L19/12/2012
47
TaiwanYa381.20343.923084
NT$34.0/L (92 unleaded)
NT$35.5/L (95 unleaded)
NT$37.5/L (98 unleaded)
02/04/2012
48
South AfricaYa431.213.9446R13.59/L04/02/2014
49
IndonesiaYaSubsidi (RON88)221.223.9772
Rp 6500/L (subsidized)(RON 88)
Rp 9200/L (RON 92)
Rp 9530/L (RON 95)
Rp 35000 (RON 100)
Rp 5500/L (subsidized)(Diesel)
21/06/2013
50
CubaYa641.244.0424CUC1.15/L (95)
CUC1.30/L (98)
CUC1.10/L (diesel)
02/03/2011
51
UkraineYa531.244.0424UAH 9.90/L (95 Octane)
UAH 9.50/L (diesel)
19/04/2011
52
Philippines (Manila)Ya791.2954.2217P 54.00/L25/09/2012
53
IndiaYa231.34.238
81.31/L (Petrol)
62.60/L (diesel)
414/14.2 kg (Domestic LPG)
06/01/2014
54
BrazilYa121.354.401R$2.98/L03/03/2013
55
AustraliaYa311.364.4336
A$1.517/L (RON 91)
A$1.601/L (diesel)
A$0.932/L (LPG)
24/01/2014
56
ChileYa841.364.4336CLP 592/L23/12/2010
57
BelizeYa971.44.564
BZ$10.18/US gallon (regular)
BZ$10.59/US gallon (premium)
BZ$10.24/US gallon (diesel)
21/12/2011
58
ThailandYa331.424.6292
฿37.38/L (Gasohol 95-E10)
฿43.75/L (RON 91), ฿35.38/L (Gasohol 91-E10)
฿32.19/L (Diesel)
24/11/2012
59
AlbaniaYa911.444.6944
ALL165/L (€1.18) (RON 95)
ALL160/L (€1.14) (Diesel)
13/08/2011
60
MoroccoYa961.54.89
MAD 12.65/L (€1.50) (95)
MAD 8.65/L (€1.02) (Diesel)
14/05/2013
61
Uruguay (Montevideo)Ya1031.524.9552U$ 29.7/L26/12/2009
62
SurinameYa581.555.053SR$5/L15/08/2011
63
BarbadosYa1061.595.1834Bd$3.17/L (reg)
Bd$2.79/L (diesel)
25/12/2013
64
ZambiaYa1091.615.2486ZK7639/L (Gasoline)24/09/2010
65
Peru (Lima)Ya461.625.2812
PEN S/.16.00/US gallon (95 Octane)
S/.8.46/US gallon (diesel)
26/12/2009
66
SingaporeYa831.675.4442
S$2.50/L (RON 98)
S$2.16/L (RON 95)
S$2.10/L (RON 92)
S$2.00/L (Diesel)
21/06/2011
67
BulgariaYa1001.725.6072
BGN 2.57/L (95)
BGN 2.73/L (98)
BGN 2.62/L (diesel)
07/03/2012
68
SpainYa701.785.8028€1.33/L (95 RON)
€1.29/L (Diesel)
06/04/2011
69
New ZealandYa571.815.9006
NZ$2.199/L (91 octane)
NZ$2.279/L (95 octane)
NZ$1.569/L (diesel)
13/08/2012
70
PolandYa681.815.9006PLN 5.59/L (95)
PLN 5.67/L (diesel)
03/02/2012
71
South KoreaYa651.815.9006KRW 2,043.61/L31/03/2012
72
EstoniaYa861.825.9332
€1.394/L (95 RON)
€1.434/L (98 RON)
€1.379/L (diesel)
15/08/2012
73
JapanYa491.845.9984¥152.7/L25/04/2011
74
Czech RepublicYa821.856.031
CZK 34.90/L (95)
CZK 35.90/L (98)
CZK 34.50/L (diesel)
06/03/2014
75
CroatiaYa711.876.0962
HRK 10.27/L (95)
HRK 10.59/L (98)
HRK 9.38/L (diesel)
13/06/2013
76
SloveniaYa1141.886.1288
€1.412/L (95 Octane)
€1.428/L (100 Octane)
€1.302/L (Diesel)
09/02/2012
77
LithuaniaYa891.926.2592LTL 4.60/L (95)
LTL 4.74/L (diesel)
06/04/2011
78
SerbiaYa801.926.2592
EuroPremium 95 RSD 166.7/L (€1.46/L)
Premium 95 RSD 157.9/L (€1.39/L)
EuroDiesel RSD 161.4/L (€1.42)
31/10/2012
79
Austria (Vienna)Ya721.956.357
€1.491/L (95)
€1.633/L (98)
€1.446/L (diesel)
€0.991/Kg (CNG-Methane)
06/04/2011
80
SlovakiaYa951.986.4548
€1.490/L (95 Natural)
€1.429/L (Diesel)
€0.695/L (LPG)
23/01/2012
81
Romania (Bucharest)Ya501.996.4874RON 6.33/L (95)
RON 6.36/L (diesel)
01/04/2014
82
PortugalYa942.086.7808
€1.597/L (95)
€1.759/L (98)
€1.429/L (Diesel)
€0.894 (Autogas)
07/01/2014
83
GermanyYa442.096.8134
€1.65/L (Super E5, 95 RON)
€1.69/L (SuperPlus E5, 98 RON)
€1.61/L (Super E10, 95 RON)
€1.47/L (Diesel)
08/05/2012
84
SwitzerlandYa992.096.8134
CHF 1.81/L (Bleifrei 95)
CHF 1.87/L (Super Plus 98)
CHF 1.94/L (diesel)
06/04/2011
85
SwedenYa932.16.846
SEK 14.53/L (95),
SEK 14.90/L (98),
SEK 14.24/L (diesel)
03/04/2013
86
HungaryYa732.146.9764
HUF 415/L (95),
HUF 440/L (diesel)
HUF 350/L (E85)
HUF 221/L (LPG)
14/01/2012
87
IsraelYa982.146.9764
ILS 7.54/L (95)
ILS 7.8/L (diesel)
ILS 4.21/L (LPG-autogas)
12/02/2014
88
IrelandYa1072.157.009€1.490/L (Unleaded 95)
€1.450/L (Diesel)
06/04/2011
89
GreeceYa882.27.172€1.599/L (unleaded)
€1.285/L (diesel)
06/03/2014
90
BelgiumYa812.237.2698
€1.719/L (Eurosuper 95)
€1.759/L (Super Plus 98)
€1.538/L (Diesel)
€0.713/L (LPG)
08/05/2012
91
FranceYa562.287.4328
€1.585/L (95)
€1.468/L (diesel)
€1.226/Kg (CNG-Methane)
06/04/2011
92
United KingdomYa192.287.4328
£1.41/L (Unleaded)
£1.49/L (Super)
£1.48/L (Diesel)
01/04/2012
93
ItalyYa472.317.5306
€1.748/L (Eurosuper)
€1.907/L (98 RON)
€1.660/L (Diesel)
€1.774/L (Special_Diesel)
€0.768/L (LPG-autogas)
€0.989/Kg (CNG-Methane)
National average, does not include self-service discounts.
07/10/2013
94
FinlandYa852.337.5958€1.601/L (98E RON)
€1.364/L (Diesel)
06/04/2011
95
DenmarkYa402.357.661
DKK 13.52/L (€1.81) (95)
DKK 12.04/L (€1.61) (diesel)
09/10/2012
96
TurkeyYa622.387.7588TL 5.01/L (95 RON)
TL 4.33/L (Diesel)
27/05/2014
97
NetherlandsYa612.478.0522
€1.887/L (Euro95)
€1.531/L (Diesel)
€1.949/L (Superplus)
05/09/2012
98
NorwayYa142.668.6716NOK 15.78/L (95)
NOK 14.44/L (Diesel)
06/05/2014